I first visited Havana in November 2016, a few days after Fidel Castro died, and just under a year before Hurricane Irma hit Cuba in September 2017. Since then, much has changed, including the hand-painted signs that punctuate the journey from the airport to the city centre, which today do not celebrate the revolution so much as the 'Unidad y...
The exhibition Beyond Boundaries at Somerset House in London (12 March–2 April 2019) marked the historic contributions of the Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing (CAFA) and the Slade School of Fine Art, University College London, on the occasion of their 100th and 150th anniversaries, respectively. Spread across several rooms of Somerset House's...
The National 2019: New Australian Art features work by 70 contemporary Australia-based artists split across three venues: the Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW), Carriageworks, and the Museum of Contemporary Art Australia (MCA) (29 March–21 July 2019), as curated by Isobel Parker Philip, curator of photographs at AGNSW; Daniel Mudie Cunningham,...
Laurent Grasso, Untitled (2018) (video still). HD video. Created in consultation with Otto Jungarrayi Sims, chairman, Warlukurlangu Artists Aboriginal Corporation, Yuendumu, with support from Cecilia Alfonso, manager, Warlukurlangu Artists Aboriginal Corporation, Yuendumu. Copyright © Laurent Grasso / ADAGP, Paris 2018. Image via The Conversation.
If a 21st birthday "coming of age" observance can be applied to cultural events, 2018 marks the launch into adulthood of the Biennale of Sydney. In some ways Sydney's biennale was a precocious child, turning its back during infancy on mainstream Eurocentric art in favour of exploring its local geographic region, early on including substantial works from Australasian artists.
Ai Weiwei is China's most recognised contemporary artist. In the past 25 years, Ai has come to acclaim for his large-scale installations, political activism and frenetic online presence. Ai is the son of renowned poet Ai Qing, a one-time member of the Chinese Communist Party who was accused of 'rightist' opposition to the government the year of his son's birth. The family was subsequently exiled to a labour camp in rural northern China where they lived for 16 years. After Mao Zedong's death and the ensuing end of the Cultural Revolution in 1976, the family returned to Beijing where the young Ai enrolled in the Beijing Film Academy. It was here that he co-founded Stars Group, one of China's earliest avant-garde art collectives.
In 1981, Ai moved to the United States where he studied at the University of Pennsylvania; the University of California, Berkeley; and Parsons School of Design in New York. However, he ultimately dropped out and made a living by working odd jobs. During this time he took a prolific amount of photographs in the city's East Village and learned about conceptual art, performance and poetry from friends like Allen Ginsberg—lessons that would inform his developing practice. In 1993, due to his father's illness, Ai returned to China and found it a changed nation—the pro-democracy Tiananmen Square protests had taken place just four years earlier and surges of materialism, corruption and environmental problems had accompanied the country's rapid economic development. Inspired by his time in New York's East Village, Ai contributed to the creation of the Beijing East Village, an avant-garde artistic community comprising some of the first Chinese performance artists. Ai made his own first significant performance work two years later, when he dropped a 2000-year-old Han Dynasty urn (Dropping a Han Dynasty Urn, ). Met with outrage, Ai drew connections between the act and Mao Zedong's stance that China must both build a new world and destroy the old one, a sentiment used to justify the sacking of cultural objects and historical signifiers during the Cultural Revolution. Such wariness of establishment and government came to characterise Ai's career, and is surmised in his ongoing series of photographs that depict him giving the middle finger to structures of power such as Tiananmen Square, Hong Kong's skyline, the Eiffel Tower and the White House (Study of Perspective [1995–2003]).
Ai is an artist, architect, photographer, filmmaker, antique furniture dealer, scholar and designer, but what he has become most known for is his criticism of the Chinese government—an authority that employs strict censorship and is known for punishing dissenters. Ai and the Communist Party first clashed when in 2005, the largest internet platform in China invited the artist to begin blogging. As relayed in a 2006 interview with Hans Ulrich Obrist, the artist was 'totally seduced'. He posted a constant stream of social commentary, political criticisms, personal writings and photographs; at one point over 100,000 people were reading per day. Due to its perceived sensitive content, the blog was shut down by authorities four years later. Ai took to Twitter and Instagram (both banned in China) where his hundreds of thousands of followers are still inundated with images of his life and work. He is widely credited for bringing to light human rights issues in China for an international audience.
In 2008, along with Herzog & de Meuron, Ai came to even greater global acclaim when he acted as artistic consultant for the Beijing National Stadium, constructed for that year's Olympics. Yet controversy struck again when in the same year, an earthquake hit Sichuan province and thousands of children died while studying in shoddily constructed schools. Ai launched a 'Citizens' Investigation', rallying the public to collect the names of the victims in order to memorialise them and shed light on the substandard building conditions that had heightened the death toll. The government did not approve, and Ai was beaten by police shortly before he was scheduled to testify for one of his collaborators on the project and suffered a cerebral haemorrhage. One of Ai's most famous photographs shows him in the elevator with the policemen after the attack (Ai Weiwei in the Elevator When Taken into Custody by the Police ). Still, Ai's work about the earthquake travelled to Munich, where it was included in the exhibition So Sorry at the Haus der Kunst from October 2009 to January 2010. Displayed on the museum's façade, the installation Remembering (2009) was constructed from 9000 children's backpacks and spelled out the phrase 'For seven years she lived happily on this earth', a quote from one of the young victim's mothers. This multiplicity of material and large scale is characteristic of Ai, who is known for repeating and modifying simple materials, as seen in the millions of porcelain seeds for his 2010 Tate Modern project Sunflower Seeds, and his accumulation of 886 wooden stools in Bang at the 2013 Venice Biennale.
2011 was a monumental year for Ai; the artist was arrested at the Beijing airport by authorities who had branded him as a 'deviant and plagiarist'. His studios were searched, computers confiscated and Ai and his staff and family were questioned. After almost three months of harsh imprisonment, Ai was released after receiving charges of tax evasion. Yet his passport was confiscated for four years as the artist was 'suspected of other crimes'. He is still under close watch by authorities; indeed, the cameras installed by the police in front of his studio to monitor his activities inspired his marble sculpture Surveillance Camera (2010). In recent years, Ai's attention has been focused on the migrant emergencies in the Middle East. The artist has travelled extensively to refugee camps and the shores where migrants enter Europe to conduct research and document the humanitarian crisis. Law of the Journey (2017–18) featured a 230-foot-long inflatable raft carrying 258 faceless refugee figures, while thousands of lifejackets collected from asylum seekers in Lesbos made up the installation Soleil Levant (2017) in Copenhagen. The installation saw the façade of a major building adorned with the bright orange safety vests. Other recent projects have focused on surveillance, drones and political prisoners.
Ai Weiwei currently lives in Berlin, where he is the Einstein Visiting Professor at the Berlin University of the Arts.
Chen Shaoxiong is known for his combination of traditional Chinese ink painting techniques with contemporary technology and subject matter. With a formal background in printmaking, he further worked in a variety of media including photography, performance and installation. Chen is also remembered for his role as a founding member of two seminal art collectives, the Big Tail Elephant Working Group and Xijing Men.
The Big Tail Elephant Working Group, which Chen established with artists Lin Yilin, Liang Juhui and Xu Tan in the 1990s, was based in Guangzhou and became known for their public performances and interventions in response to the rapid urbanisation of the Pearl River Delta region in southern China. While the group did not make collaborative works, the artists consistently exchanged ideas and exhibited together. Active between 1991 and 1998, the group challenged the state-run art system by exhibiting in alternative spaces such as private homes, local bars and basements. The group held six shows between 1991 and 1997; in 1998 they had a retrospective at the Kunsthalle Bern, Switzerland, which was both their first exhibition in a Western art institute and their last as a collective.
Chen's early works from the Big Tail Elephant period are titled after the duration for which they existed or were designed to exist. For Five Hours, a performance in 1993, Chen planned to remain still from 9:30 pm to 2:30 am at an entrance to a bar. The police, however, halted the performance after only two and a half hours. In an interview with Pauline J Yao in the catalogue Chen Shaoxiong, published by Blue Kingfisher, the artist explained that his use of units of time in titles served to 'take the concept of "reality" out of temporality'.
Founded in 2006, Xijing Men was a collective of three East Asian artists: Chen Shaoxiong (China), Gimhongsok (South Korea) and Tsuyoshi Ozawa (Japan). Given that the members spoke different languages, they communicated through drawings and written Chinese characters shared by all three countries. Employing absurdity, humour, sarcasm and satire, the three artists collaborated on projects that explored Xijing or 'Western Capital', a fictitious city they had fabricated to mirror the world they live in. In Xijing Olympics (2008), for example, the artists cast themselves as athletes and their family and friends as audience and staged an Olympics-style game of their own design. Using watermelons in lieu of soccer balls and loaves of bread for guns, the performance satirised state pomp and ceremony in relation to the Olympics, then taking place in Beijing, China.
Tirelessly exploring new media and technology, Chen began working with video in 1994 and combining video and ink painting in 2005. Works such as Ink City (2005), Ink History (2010) and Ink Media (2011–13) typically have their roots in the images found in mass and social media, which the artist recaptured in ink and pieced together into videos. For Ink City, Chen based his ink paintings on photographs and images of city scenes. Incorporating about 300 ink paintings, the three-minute video presents memories of urbanisation and development. Ink History, on the other hand, focuses exclusively on the history of China from 1909 to 2009. Chen chose iconic images that were familiar not only to Chinese people but also to the rest of the world, such as the picture of Mao Zedong with Stalin. In Ink Media he returned to the images of unrest, using moments of protest movements around the globe in the last three decades. By collapsing protests that occurred in different times and places, Chen sought to delineate the idea of protest as a shared means of political expression and of the human body as 'a medium for anti-war protest'.
Chen's interest in shared experiences and memories is also apparent in 'Collective Memory' (2006–16), a project that has had various iterations. Replicating the images of public cultural institutions such as the Louvre and the British Museum, Chen explored their contradictory status as both elite-oriented sites and visual markers of ultimately public spaces. For the iteration in 2016, the artist invited ordinary people to replace the pixels of the photographs with their fingerprints, creating a portrait of shared environments.
Chen graduated from Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts in 1984. As a solo artist, he exhibited widely in major cities around the world including Shanghai, New York, Beijing, Tokyo, Hong Kong, London, Paris and Seoul. He also participated in several international exhibitions, including the Gwangju Biennale (2012, 2008, 2002), Lyon Biennale (2009), Guangzhou Triennial (2005), Venice Biennale (2003) and Shanghai Biennale (2002). Shortly before his death in 2016, Chen worked with long-time colleague and curator Hou Hanru to organise the retrospective exhibition Chen Shaoxiong: Prepared at Power Station of Art, Shanghai.
Mami Kataoka has been the chief curator at the Mori Art Museum (MAM) in Tokyo since 2003. Also a writer, lecturer and professor, Kataoka has proven her intimate knowledge for trends within contemporary Asian art, addressing social, cultural and historical themes in the multitude of projects she has curated in the past decades. Exhibitions...
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