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(1904 – 1989), Germany

Hans Hartung Biography

Born in Leipzig in 1904, French-German artist Hans Hartung was a key figure of 20th-century abstraction, known for his lyrical and gestural approach to painting and lithography. Born into a family of doctors, the artist began drawing at age six when attempting to capture lightning flashes during a storm. Of this experience, the artist noted: 'These flashes of lightening enabled me to understand the speed of the line, the desire to capture, in pencil or brush, the moment and they made me understand the urgent nature of spontaneity'. Beginning his studies in philosophy and art history at Leipzig University, Hartung later abandoned the course to attend art schools in Dresden, Leipzig, and Munich.

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Hans Hartung's paintings have a calligraphic quality, where scraping and spraying techniques result in dynamic forms across the surface. Exempt of all figurative elements, the artist's painting explore the tension between coloured areas and compositions in the foreground, created using a variety of tools, from spray guns to, in later years, paint-dripped branches from olive trees around his home and studio in Antibes. These paintings appear spontaneous; however, each painting was preceded by fastidious sketches. In relation to the balance between chance and control, Hartung expressed: 'At the beginning, I act in total freedom. Work, by following its own course, constrains me more and more, and I am less and less at liberty to choose'.

In 1926, Hartung visited the International Art Exhibition in Dresden, which exposed him to works by artists such as Georges Braque, Henri Matisse, and Pablo Picasso, and of artistic styles including Impressionism, Cubism, and Fauvism. In 1929, he married the Norwegian painter Anna-Eva Bergman, with whom he would buy two hectares of olive grove in Antibes, France, in the 1960s, where they settled to live and work in 1973. The artist's first exhibition took place in 1931 at the Kühl Gallery in Dresden, followed by an exhibition with his wife at Blomqvist Gallery in Oslo. During the early years of their marriage, Bergman and the artist attempted to settle in Berlin, but were forced into exile by the Nationalist Socialist regime. He settled in Paris, and made the acquaintance of artists such as Wassily Kandinsky, Alexander Calder, and Joan Miró, and the sculptor Julio González. During this period, Hans Hartung developed a gestural style defined by coloured backgrounds foregrounded by clusters of graphic forms. At the outbreak of the War, he joined the French Foreign Legion, but was later arrested by the Gestapo, who imprisoned him for seven months for having served in a foreign army, and for his 'degenerate' painting style. He re-joined the army upon his release, but was severely injured in the Belfort siege of 1944, which led to the amputation of his right leg. In 1945, he returned to Paris and resumed painting, earning French citizenship a year later.

In the post-war years, Hartung became a key figure of the Art Informel and Taschist movements, associated with artists such as Pierre Soulages and Jean Fautrier. In an Ocula Insight video walkthrough of Hans Hartung and Art Informel at Mazzoleni London (1 October 2019–18 January 2020), writer and historian Alan Montgomery notes that artists of the Art Informel movement share 'a very gestural approach to painting, and a lyrical approach to their abstraction.' Abstraction boomed in the 1950s, and in the 1960s the artist experimented with 'invading' the canvas with scratches, saying: 'What I love is to act on the canvas. To act? That is to scratch, to tear, to stain, to invade the canvas with colour, in brief everything which is not "to paint".' The artist's practice had a profound influence on artists working in Paris and beyond, with echoes of his work present in paintings by Sam Francis and Helen Frankenthaler, for example.

In 1986, Hartung suffered a major stroke, which led to his being wheelchair-bound until his death in 1989. Hans Hartung's artworks from this period are no less rigorous in their experimentation, however. Of spectacular scale, he used a spray gun to shoot paint across the canvas, completing most of his canvases after just a few minutes. He was awarded the 1956 prize for the Europe-Africa section at the Guggenheim International Award, and the International Grand Prize for painting at the 1960 Venice Biennale. Major group exhibitions have been held at the Jeu de Paume in Paris in 1937, organised by curator and critic Christian Zervos, and the Galerie du Luxembourg in Paris, organised by the artist Georges Mathieu, who organised further group exhibitions in April 1948 at the Galerie Colette Allendy (titled HWPSMTB—each letter drawn from the artists' names), and in July 1948 at the Galerie des Deux-Isles, titled White and Black. Major solo exhibitions of his work have occurred at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1975), and Musée d'art moderne de la Ville de Paris (1980). In the last decade, Hartung's works have been presented at the Palace of Fine Arts Beijing and National Museum, Nanjing (Hartung in China, 2005), as well as in Hans Hartung: Spontaneous Calculus, Pictures, Photographs, Film 1922–1989, which showcased his lifelong use of photography at Museum der Bildenden Künste in Leipzig; Hans Hartung: Essential, Circula de Bellas Artes, Madrid (2008); Hans Hartung: The Gesture and the Method, Fondation Marguerite and Aimé Maeght, Saint-Paul-de-Vence (2008); Hartung: Prints, Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, Geneva (2011); Hans Hartung: L'Atelier du Geste, CCBB, Sao Paulo (2014); Hans Hartung and Photography, Museum für Gegenwartskunst, Siegen (2016); and Hans Hartung: La fabrique du gest, Paris Museum of Modern Art (2019).

Tessa Moldan | Ocula | 2019

Hans Hartung Featured Artworks

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T1989-A12 by Hans Hartung contemporary artwork
Hans HartungT1989-A12, 1989acrylic on canvas
146 x 114 cm
Waddington Custot Contact Gallery
T 1965 - E46 by Hans Hartung contemporary artwork
Hans HartungT 1965 - E46, 1965Acrylic on canvas
60 x 73 cm
Tornabuoni Art Contact Gallery
T1974-R19 by Hans Hartung contemporary artwork
Hans HartungT1974-R19, 1974Acrylic on canvas
100 x 162 cm
Simon Lee Gallery Contact Gallery
T1982-E8 by Hans Hartung contemporary artwork
Hans HartungT1982-E8, 1982Acrylic on canvas
141.9 x 180 cm
Simon Lee Gallery Contact Gallery
T1958-7 by Hans Hartung contemporary artwork
Hans HartungT1958-7, 1958Oil on board
45 x 34 cm
Mazzoleni Contact Gallery
T1989-U42 by Hans Hartung contemporary artwork
Hans HartungT1989-U42, 1989Acrylic on canvas
162 x 130 cm
Perrotin Contact Gallery
T1989-U45 by Hans Hartung contemporary artwork
Hans HartungT1989-U45, 1989Acrylic on canvas
167 x 135 x 6 cm
Perrotin Contact Gallery
T1989-U3 by Hans Hartung contemporary artwork
Hans HartungT1989-U3, 1989Acrylic on canvas
130 x 97 x 3 cm
Perrotin Contact Gallery

Hans Hartung Recent Exhibitions

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Contemporary art exhibition, Group Exhibition, Wonderland at Perrotin, Shanghai
Closed
30 April–30 June 2020 Group Exhibition Wonderland PerrotinShanghai
Contemporary art exhibition, Hans Hartung, Hans Hartung at Mazzoleni, Turin
Closed
25 October 2019–18 January 2020 Hans Hartung MazzoleniTurin
Contemporary art exhibition, Group Exhibition, Hans Hartung and Art Informel at Mazzoleni, London
Closed
1 October 2019–18 January 2020 Group Exhibition Hans Hartung and Art Informel MazzoleniLondon

Hans Hartung Represented By

Perrotin contemporary art gallery in Paris, France Perrotin Hong Kong, New York, Paris, Seoul, Shanghai, Tokyo
Simon Lee Gallery contemporary art gallery in Hong Kong Simon Lee Gallery Hong Kong, London, New York
Tornabuoni Art contemporary art gallery in Florence, Italy Tornabuoni Art Florence, Milan, Lucca, Paris, London, Crans Montana

Hans Hartung In Ocula Magazine

Hans Hartung and Art Informel: Exhibition Walkthrough Ocula Insight Hans Hartung and Art Informel: Exhibition Walkthrough

In this video, writer and historian Alan Montgomery discusses Hartung's practice and its legacy.

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Hans Hartung In Related Press

HANS HARTUNG: A Constant Storm Related Press HANS HARTUNG: A Constant Storm 1 February 2018, The Brooklyn Rail

Hans Hartung (1904–1989) was born in Leipzig, Germany, into a family where paintings and music were always present. He was the son and grandson of physicians: his father involved in pharmaceutical research.

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Abstract Painter Hans Hartung Is Having a New York Moment Related Press Abstract Painter Hans Hartung Is Having a New York Moment 16 January 2018, WWD

German-French abstract painter Hans Hartung is getting his first major New York exhibition since 1975, when the artist was given a retrospective at The Metropolitan Museum of Art. It was panned by critics, notably The New York Times ' Hilton Kramer who asked: 'Why Hartung?' A selection of the late artist's work is currently on display in...

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Galerie Perrotin Now Represents the Estate of Hans Hartung Related Press Galerie Perrotin Now Represents the Estate of Hans Hartung 27 April 2017, ARTnews

Galerie Perrotin will now represent the estate of Hans Hartung, the French artist associated with the Art Informel and Tachisme movements. The gallery, which has spaces in Hong Kong, New York, Paris, Seoul, and Tokyo, will showcase the painter's work at an Art Basel booth in June, staged in collaboration with London's Simon Lee Gallery.

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Hans Hartung In Video & Audio

HANS HARTUNG TALK BETWEEN MATTHIEU POIRIER & BARBARA MACADAM Related Video & Audio HANS HARTUNG TALK BETWEEN MATTHIEU POIRIER & BARBARA MACADAM 7 December 2018, Perrotin

Talk between Matthieu Poirier, curator of the exhibition, and Barbara MacAdam, ArtNews editor-at-large, on the occasion of A Constant Storm. Works from 1923 to 1989 at Perrotin New York. January 12–February 18, 2018 Hans Hartung Talk–Matthieu Poirier & Barbara MacAdam

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Hans HARTUNG - 'A constant storm' - Full version 19'28 Related Video & Audio Hans HARTUNG - 'A constant storm' - Full version 19'28 3 January 2018, Perrotin

Hans HARTUNG A constant storm. Works from 1922 to 1989 January 12–February 18, 2018 PERROTIN New York Film by Nikolaï Saoulski © 2017

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Hans HARTUNG - 'A Constant Storm' - Short Version - 4'27 Related Video & Audio Hans HARTUNG - 'A Constant Storm' - Short Version - 4'27 13 June 2017, Perrotin

HANS HARTUNG Curated by Matthieu Poirier Perrotin New York - January 2018 Film by Nikolaï Saoulski © 2017

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